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  • Baldridge, B., Hill, M., & Davis, E. J. (2011). New possibilities: (Re)engaging Black males in community-based educational spaces. Race, Ethnicity, and Education, 14(1), 121-136.

  • Davis, J. E. (2004). Early schooling and the achievement of African American males. Urban Education, 38, 515-537.

  • Davis, J. E., & Jordan, W. J. (1994). The effects of school context, structure, and experiences on  African American males in middle and high school. The Journal of Negro Education, 63,  570-587.

  • Harper, S.R. (2012). Black male student success in higher education: A report from the    National Black Male College Achievement Study. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education. 

  • Joe, E. M., & Davis, J. E. (2010). Parental influence, school readiness, and early academic achievement for African American boys. The Journal of Negro Education, 78, 260-276.

  • Jordan, W. J., & Cooper, R. (2002). Cultural issues related to high school reform: Deciphering the case of black males. Symposium on African American Male Achievement. Baltimore, MD: CRESPAR/Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved from

  • National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Status and trends in the education  of racial and ethnic minorities. Washington, DC: Author

  • Schott Foundation for Public Education (2010). Yes we can: The Schott 50 state report on public education and Black males. Cambridge, MA: Author.

  • Warde, B. (2008). Staying the course: Narratives of African American may have completed a baccalaureate degree. Journal of African American Studies, 12(1), 59-72.

  • White House My Brother’s Keeper Task Force One Year Report (2015).

  • Zell, M. (2011). I am my brother’s keeper: The impact of a brother2brother program on African American men in college. Journal of African American Males in Education,     2(2), 216-224.



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